Male infertility can be caused by poor sperm production, defective sperm function, or sperm delivery obstructions. It can also occur because of illnesses, injuries, persistent health issues, lifestyle choices, and other causes. Inability to conceive a child can be stressful and distressing, but there are a variety of male infertility therapies available.
The inability to conceive a child is the most obvious indicator of male infertility. Other visible indications or symptoms may not exist.
However, in other circumstances, an underlying problem such as a hereditary illness, hormonal imbalance, dilated veins around the testicle, or a condition that restricts sperm passage creates signs and symptoms.
Problems with sexual function, such as difficulties ejaculating or ejaculating little amounts of fluid, decreased sexual desire, or problems keeping an erection (erectile dysfunction)
In the testicular region, you may experience pain, swelling, or a lump.
Respiratory illnesses that recur
unable to smell
Breast enlargement that is abnormal (gynecomastia)
Reduced face or body hair, as well as other symptoms indicating a chromosomal or hormonal anomaly
A sperm count that is lower than usual (fewer than 15 million sperm per millilitre of semen or a total sperm count of less than 39 million per ejaculate)
Consult a doctor at CARE Hospitals if you have not been able to conceive a child after a year of regular, unprotected intercourse, or if you have any of the following symptoms:
Erection or ejaculation issues, poor sex drive, or other sexual function issues
Testicular pain, discomfort, a bulge, or swelling
Surgery on the groin, testicle, penis, or scrotum
A partner above the age of 35
Male fertility is a difficult procedure. The following events must occur in order for your spouse to get pregnant:
You must be able to create healthy sperm. Initially, this includes the development of male reproductive organs throughout puberty. At least one of your testicles must be working properly, and your body must create testosterone and other hormones to initiate and sustain sperm production.
Sperm must be transported into the semen. Once sperm is created in the testicles, it is transported through delicate tubes until it combines with semen and is ejaculated out of the penis.
There must be enough sperm in the semen. If the amount of sperm in your semen (sperm count) is low, the chances of one of your sperm fertilising your partner's egg are reduced. A low sperm count is defined as less than 15 million sperm per millilitre of semen or less than 39 million per ejaculate.
Sperm must be functional and mobile. If your sperm's motility or function is faulty, the sperm may not be able to reach or pierce your partner's egg.
Diagnosis at CARE Hospitals
Typically, diagnosing male infertility problems entails:
A general physical examination and a medical history are performed. Examining your genitals and inquiring about any genetic disorders, chronic health issues, illnesses, injuries, or operations that may influence fertility are all part of this process. Your doctor may also inquire about your sexual behaviours and sexual development during adolescence.
Analyse the sperm- You can offer a sample at the doctor's office by masturbating and ejaculating into a designated container.
Your sperm is then submitted to a laboratory to be counted and examined for abnormalities in the shape (morphology) and movement (motility) of the sperm. The lab will also look for indicators of abnormalities, such as infections, in your sperm.
To achieve reliable findings, many semen analysis tests are usually performed over a period of time. If your sperm analysis is normal, your doctor will most likely advise you to test your female companion thoroughly before proceeding with any more male infertility tests.
Your doctor may suggest more tests to assist in determining the reason for your infertility. These are some examples:
Ultrasound of the scrotum- This test generates pictures within your body by using high-frequency sound waves. A scrotal ultrasound can help your doctor determine whether you have a varicocele or other issues with your testicles and supporting tissues.
Ultrasound through the cervix- In your rectum, a tiny, lubricated wand is inserted. It enables your doctor to examine your prostate and look for obstructions in the channels that transport sperm.
Hormone analysis- The pituitary gland, brain, and testicles all create hormones that are important for sexual development and sperm generation. Other hormonal or organ system abnormalities may also lead to infertility. A blood test determines the amount of testosterone and other hormones in the body.
Urinalysis after ejaculation- Sperm in your urine may suggest that your sperm are migrating backwards into your bladder rather than out your penis after ejaculation (retrograde ejaculation).
Genetic examinations- When sperm concentration is exceptionally low, a hereditary reason may exist. A blood test can detect tiny alterations in the Y chromosome, which indicate a genetic problem. To identify numerous congenital or hereditary disorders, genetic testing may be conducted.
Biopsy of the testicles- If the testicular biopsy findings reveal that sperm production is normal, your problem is most likely caused by a blockage or another issue with sperm transport.
Sperm function tests that are specialised- A variety of tests may be done to determine how well your sperm survive after ejaculation, how effectively they enter an egg, and whether or not they adhere to the egg. These tests are seldom utilised and typically do not affect treatment recommendations appreciably.
In situations of infertility, it is suggested that the female spouse be examined as well. Your companion may be prescribed special therapies. Alternatively, you may discover that pursuing assisted reproductive procedures is suitable in your case.
Male infertility treatments include:
Surgery- A varicocele, for example, can be surgically rectified. The same is possible for a blocked vas deferens as well. When there are no sperms in the ejaculated semen, the required quantity of sperm may be extracted straight from the testicles. Epididymis utilising sperm retrieval procedures can also be used for the same.
Infection treatment- Antibiotic therapy may heal a reproductive tract infection, but it does not necessarily restore fertility.
Treatments for issues in sexual intercourse- In disorders such as erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation, medication or counselling can assist enhance fertility.
Hormone therapy and medicine - In situations when infertility is caused by high or low levels of specific hormones or difficulties with the way the body processes hormones, your doctor may offer hormone replacement or drugs.
ART (assisted reproduction technique) - Depending on your personal condition and needs, ART treatments may entail acquiring sperm by regular ejaculation, surgical extraction, or donor persons. The sperm is subsequently injected into the female vaginal tract or utilised in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
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