Prostate Cancer refers to cancer that occurs in the prostate area. The prostate refers to a small walnut-like shaped gland that is present in the male body. The prostate has many different functions. This gland helps to produce the seminal fluid that transports and nourishes sperm. It even secrets prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and helps in aiding urination control.
One of the most common types of cancer found in men is Prostate Cancer. Most cases of prostate cancer tend to have a slow growth rate of cells that do not cause any serious harm. However, there are other cases where prostate cancer can spread quickly and aggressively.
Prostate cancer that is detected at an early stage has a higher chance of having a successful treatment.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
During the early stage of prostate cancer, there may or may not be any signs or symptoms that an individual has. However, when a person undergoes the process of screening there are a few changes that can be detected which indicate prostate cancer. A few of the symptoms of prostate cancer can include the following:
Trouble in starting and maintaining Urination
The constant need to Urinate, especially during the nighttime
A weak urine stream leading to a decrease in the force of urine
Blood in the Urine
Blood in the Semen
Painful ejaculation or urination
Pain in the hips, back, or pelvis
Pain in the bone
Unexpected weight loss
The advanced stage of prostate cancer can include the above-given symptoms and signs as well. If you face any of the above signs or symptoms, make sure to contact your doctor immediately and make an appointment to get checked.
Types of Prostate Cancer
The types of prostate cancer depend on the size of cancer. These can include:
This type of cancer generally develops in the gland cells that are lined outside the prostate gland. This is one of the most common types of prostate cancer that is diagnosed in men.
Ductal Adenocarcinoma is the type of prostate cancer that begins in the duct tube of the prostate glands. This type of cancer tends to spread and grow rapidly as compared to the acinar adenocarcinoma type of cancer.
Transitional cell (urothelial) cancer
Urothelial Cancer refers to the type of prostate cancer that begins in the cells of the urethra. The Urethra refers to the tube that helps to carry urine outside the body. This type of cancer typically begins as bladder cancer and eventually spreads to the prostate area. However, in certain rare cases, this type of cancer can begin in the prostate area and spread to the bladder and other nearby tissues.
Squamous Cell Cancer
This type of cancer begins with flat cells that cover the prostate. They tend to grow quickly and spread rapidly as compared to the adenocarcinoma type of cancer.
Small Cell Prostate Cancer
Small Cell Prostate cancer is a type of neuroendocrine cancer. This type of cancer is generally made up of small round cells.
Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer
It is still unknown as to what causes prostate cancer. However, give below are certain risk factors that make it more likely of being diagnosed with prostate cancer:
People who are aged above 50 have a higher risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer. It is very rare for men below the age of 45 to be diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Ethnicity or Race
It is known that prostate cancer generally is more common in Black colored people than white-colored people. Similarly, Hispanic and Asian people have a lower risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer as compared to white or black people.
Family history plays a huge role in developing prostate cancer. If there is any close relative who has a history of prostate cancer, then there will be a higher chance of being diagnosed with it.
Genetic factors such as changes to BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can increase the risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer. The mutations in these genes can even increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Apart from this, men who were born with Lynch Syndrome have a high risk of developing prostate as well as other types of cancers.
Other factors that may influence the risk of developing prostate cancer include:
Excess consumption of Alcohol
Exposure to chemicals like the herbicide Agent Orange
Sexually transmitted diseases and infections
Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
When an individual reaches the age of 50, the individual must get checked for prostate cancer. Hence, this is the first step of diagnosing prostate cancer at an early stage. To do a screening to check for prostate cancer, your doctor will suggest a digital rectal examination. If there are any abnormalities found during screening, then the following diagnosis would be conducted to check for prostate cancer:
An ultrasound of the prostate can be performed to assess the prostate in greater detail. A probe is placed through the rectum into the prostate, and sound waves are used to create an image of the prostate gland. This approach can detect any abnormality in the prostate gland.
When the PSA levels are higher than normal, a biopsy of the prostate tissue is performed. If the biopsy reveals cancer cells, the diagnosis of Prostate Cancer is confirmed.
Treatment for Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer treatment can depend on the stage of cancer. Some of the most common treatments that are offered by CARE Hospitals include:
Radical Prostatectomy Surgery
The prostate gland and surrounding tissues, including seminal vesicles and a few nearby lymph nodes, are removed during radical prostatectomy surgery. Radical prostatectomy surgery is critical for people with prostate cancer because it helps to stop cancer from spreading further to other parts of the body. Doctors at CARE Hospitals will take numerous tests before the radical prostatectomy procedure to identify the patients' condition. These tests can include MRI scans, CT scans, bone scans, biopsies, and so on.
This involves using radiation to get rid of the cancer cells or to prevent them from growing any further. There are two types of radiation therapy done:
External Radiation Therapy
Internal Radiation Therapy
The treatment will depend on the various factors available.
Male hormones are known as androgens. The two most important androgens are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Stopping or slowing the proliferation of cancer cells appears to be possible by blocking or decreasing these hormones. One option is to have the testicles removed, which produce the majority of the body's hormones. Various medications can also be beneficial.
How can CARE Hospitals Help?
Cancer treatment can be severe, difficult, and time-consuming for both the doctor and the patient. To ensure that the method runs smoothly and that only the best results are obtained, it requires coordinated, concerted, and accurate planning. CARE Hospitals offers the most advanced diagnostic services in the field of oncology. We use cutting-edge technology and equipment. We even provide world-class clinical care at an affordable price. During the postoperative period, our well-trained staff will provide assistance and suitable care to all its patients. Our staff is always accessible to assist you and answer any questions you may have. The contemporary and innovative surgical techniques at CARE Hospitals will help you improve your quality of life.
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