Stentless Heart Valve Surgery
The heart is made up of muscle tissue that supplies blood to the whole body. It is a pumping organ having four chambers. The upper two chambers are known as atria, and the lower chambers are known as ventricles. There are valves present in the chambers that keep blood flowing forward through the heart. These four types of valves are the tricuspid valve, mitral valve, pulmonary valve and aortic valve. Each valve has flaps. The flaps of tricuspid and mitral valves are known as leaflets and, the flaps of pulmonary and aortic valves are known as cusps.
When one of the four valves do not function properly or get diseased or damaged, then a surgical process is performed to restore the functions of the heart. This procedure is known as heart valve surgery. In this surgery, the surgeons repair and replace the damaged heart or valve. The heart valve can be repaired using various surgical approaches like open-heart surgery or minimally invasive heart surgery.
Generally, in stentless heart valve surgeries, the stentless valves are used in pulmonary and aortic valve positions either as a full root replacement or in a sub-coronary position.
Indications Showing Need For Stentless Heart Valve Surgery
This surgery is required when the valves do not function properly. The need for this surgery arises when the patient with the damaged valves shows the following symptoms:
Stenosis (heart valve disease)
Regurgitation (heart valve disease)
Swelling of the abdomen, feet, or ankles
Weight gain due to fluid retention
Types of Heart Valve Replacement
Underneath are the types of heart valve replacement surgeries in which artificial valves are used:
Aortic valve replacement - This surgery is performed on the aortic valve. The surgery is done if the patient is having a congenital disease that causes regurgitation or stenosis.
Mitral valve replacement - This surgery is recommended when the valve doesn't completely close or fully close. In this surgery, the damaged valve is replaced by a biological valve or artificial valve.
Double valve replacement - This replacement surgery is the replacement of both the aortic and mitral valve or the entire left side of the heart.
Pulmonary valve replacement - This surgery is required to treat the congenital defect, stenosis, which restricts the blood flow.
Risks Associated With Stentless Heart Valve Surgery
The possible complications that can arise during the heart valve replacement surgery in rare cases, are listed below:
Improper functioning of the replaced or repaired valve
Abnormality in heart rhythms (arrhythmia)
Diagnostic Tests Done Before Stentless Heart Valve Surgery
At CARE Hospitals, an experienced team of doctors perform various diagnostic tests to determine whether the patient is eligible for the surgery or not. These tests are as follows:
Electrocardiogram (ECG) - This test detects the enlarged chambers of the heart, abnormal rhythms of the heart and heart diseases.
Chest X-ray - This imaging test helps the doctor in determining the size of the heart, heart valve diseases and condition of the lungs.
Cardiac MRI - In this test, radio waves and magnetic fields are used to get detailed images of the heart. The lower heart chambers are assessed through this test.
Cardiac catheterization - This is an invasive diagnostic test in which the imaging of coronary arteries is done using small tubes. The test helps evaluate heart functions and coronary artery diseases.
Procedure Of Stentless Heart Valve Surgery
At CARE Hospitals, the following procedure is followed during the surgery:
The patient is asked to remove all the jewellery and other objects that may interfere during the surgery.
The doctors then start an intravenous (IV) line in the patient's hand or arm for the injection of IV fluids and other medicines. They will insert catheters in the wrist or neck to check the status of the heart and blood pressure.
After this, a breathing tube will be placed in the lungs through the mouth. The patient is then connected to a ventilator.
The surgeon will place a transesophageal echocardiogram in the swallowing tube to monitor the functions of the valves.
The urine is drained with the help of a flexible and soft tube. The other tube is used to remove the stomach fluids.
If the surgeon is performing open-heart surgery, then he will make an incision down the centre of the chest. But, if he is performing a less invasive process then, he will make small incisions.
After this, the doctor will cut the breastbone in half and will separate it.
The doctor will stop the patient's heart so that they can replace or repair the heart. This will be done with the help of the heart-lung bypass machine.
When the heart has stopped beating, the doctors will replace the diseased or damaged valve with an artificial valve in case of valve replacement. In the case of valve repair, the procedure will depend on the type of valve disease.
After the completion of the surgery, the doctors will give a shock to the heart so that it starts beating again.
After monitoring the valve, the breastbone will be closed with the help of stitches.
They will use tubes to drain out the fluids around the heart.
At last, the incision is closed with sutures or surgical glue and, then the dressing is done.
How Can CARE Hospitals Help?
At CARE Hospitals, we provide the facility for stentless heart valve surgery. The leading doctors of our hospital perform various diagnostic tests before the surgery and provide personalised treatment options to the patients. The trained staff provide complete assistance and end-to-end care to the patients during and after the surgery. The hospital follows international treatment protocols to provide the best results to the patients.
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