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Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease condition that stops or inhibits the body’s ability to control and use sugar (glucose) as fuel. People can have too much glucose content in their bloodstream making it a chronic condition.

High blood sugar levels can make people the victim of various problems related to the circulatory, neurological, and immunological systems. The basic problems involved in type 2 diabetes are that the pancreas is unable to make enough insulin and the cells do not respond to the insulin made. All these factors can be responsible for low sugar intake inside the body.

It is also referred to as adult diabetes or adult-onset disease. Both type 1 and type 2 can begin at early and later stages, but type 2 is more common in elders. Type 2 diabetes has no cure and hence is considered a chronic condition. Although you can cope with it with the help of a healthy lifestyle. You can also control type 2 diabetes with the help of insulin therapy or medicines for diabetes. Doctors at CARE Hospitals provide the best possible treatment for diabetes and related issues.

Symptoms 

The signs and symptoms may take time to develop, some of them include;

  • Increased thirst

  • Frequent urination

  • Increased hunger

  • Unknown weight loss

  • Fatigue

  • Blurred vision

  • Slow-healing sores and wounds

  • Frequent infections

  • Numbness in the hands or feet

  • Tingling in the hands or feet

  • Areas of darkened skin like in and around armpits and neck

Risks

There are many risks linked with type 2 diabetes. If you don’t follow a healthy lifestyle, you may be prone to the condition. The following risks are-

  • Obesity or weight issues

  • Inactivity or lack of movement- if you are inactive and perform no activity.

  • Family history can lead to the same if one of your parents has type 2 diabetes. 

  • Race

  • Ethnicity

  • Blood lipid levels

  • Age- it is more common after 45 years of age.

  • Prediabetes- when the sugar level in the blood is higher than normal but isn’t classified under diabetes.

  • Pregnancy-related risks- when the mother has gestational diabetes it can lead to type 2.

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome- irregular menstrual periods can lead to type 2 diabetes.

  • Areas of darkened skin like armpits and neck- these areas are insulin resistant and can cause type 2 diabetes.

Diagnosis

There are many blood tests conducted to diagnose type 2 diabetes. A1C or haemoglobin test indicates the average blood sugar level of the body in the past 2-3 months. The following are the result markers for A1C-

  • Below 5.7% is normal.

  • 5.7% to 6.4% is diagnosed- prediabetes.

  • 6.5% or higher indicates diabetes.

Tests;

  • Random blood sugar tests- these tests indicate sugar per decilitre and are expressed in milligrams. A level of 200Mg/dL or higher will indicate diabetes regardless of the meal eaten. The frequent urination and thirst signs are followed by these tests to confirm type 2 diabetes.

  • Fasting blood sugar test- these samples are taken after a whole night's fast and results are interpreted as 100mg/dL as normal, 100-125 mg/dal as prediabetes and more than 126mg/dL as diabetes.

  • Oral glucose tolerance tests- they’re the most common diagnosis that happens after an overnight fast. You’re required to drink a sugary drink and the tests are done periodically for the next two hours. Pregnant women are not allowed to take these tests. The results can be calculated as- 140mg/dL as normal, 140-199mg/dL as prediabetes and more than 200mg/dL as diabetes. 

  • Screening- the adults above 45 are required to get screening post the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in the following group-

  • younger than 45 who are obese are at more risk 

  • Women with gestational diabetes 

  • Diagnosed with prediabetes 

  • Children who are obese or have a family history of type 2.

Treatments 

The treatment for type 2 diabetes is managed, and that includes the following-

  • Healthy eating

  • Regular exercise

  • Weight loss

  • Diabetes medication

  •  insulin therapy

  • Blood sugar monitoring

These treatments can manage and prevent further complications of diabetes.

  • Healthy eating- there’s no prescribed diabetic diet but you should do the following-

  • Schedule the meals with healthy snacks

  • Smaller portion sizes

  • More high-fibre rich foods like fruits, non-starchy vegetables and whole grains

  • Less refined grains, starchy vegetables and sweets

  • Minimal servings of low-fat dairy

  • Minimal low-fat meats and fish

  • Healthy oils like olive or canola for cooking

  • Fewer calories

  • Physical activity- It is very important to stay healthy and maintain weight according to the BMI. You can try the following-

  1. An aerobic workout- aerobic exercises include walking, biking, or running. One should invest at least 30 minutes in these aerobic exercises to maintain weight.

  2. Resistance exercises- to improve the strength, balance and ability to perform- examples are yoga and weight lifting.

  3. Limit inactivity- take a walk around to limit the inactivity.

  • Weight loss- take control of your blood sugar levels, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure.

  • Monitor blood sugar levels- this can be done with the help of a blood glucose metre that will measure the amount of sugar present in the blood. One can also opt for continuous glucose monitoring- an electronic system to record glucose levels. You can connect these devices to your phones and set an alarm to inform you about high or low sugar levels.

  • Diabetes medicines- these are drug therapies and are prescribed if one isn’t able to cope with the above therapies.

Type 2 Diabetes is one of the leading chronic diseases worldwide, at CARE Hospitals we aim to provide proper managing techniques against type 2 diabetes. With our extensive and comprehensive approach towards human welfare and wellness, we provide proper diagnosis against type 2 diabetes. Our world-class technology may help you and give you a new life. 

Frequently Asked Questions

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