Joint replacement also known as arthroplasty is a surgical process in which surgeons remove and replace the damaged or injured joint with an artificial joint. This artificial joint is called a prosthesis and can be of plastic, metal or ceramic. The artificial joint looks similar to a natural joint and moves just like it.
There are different types of joint replacement surgery but the most common types are knee replacement surgery and hip replacement surgery. Most people who are candidates for this procedure undergo total joint replacement surgery. Only a few patients undergo partial joint replacement surgery. The recovery process for each patient varies and depends on the patient's lifestyle, age, replaced joint and type of procedure.
Need For Joint Replacement Surgery
The surgeons will recommend arthroplasty if the person is having:
Joint pain that hasn't gotten cured through medications, injections, physical therapy and bracing.
Limited mobility and stiffness in joints make it difficult for them to do their daily physical activities.
Inflammation in the muscles of the joints is not improved through medications.
The above-mentioned symptoms can arise from the following conditions:
Different Types of Joint Replacement Surgery
Arthroplasty can be done in any part of the body. This surgery can be done on the following joints:
Toes and fingers
The surgeries performed on the above-mentioned joints are as follows:
Hip replacement surgery - In this surgery, a prosthesis replaces the hip joint or a part of the hip. Through this replacement surgery, the femoral head and acetabulum are replaced. Hip fractures are also fixed. It is of two types, partial hip replacement and total hip replacement.
Knee replacement surgery - In knee arthroplasty, surgeons remove the injured or damaged parts of the knee joint and replace them with plastic or metal parts. The types of knee arthroplasty are total knee replacement, Partial knee replacement, Kneecap replacement, Complex knee replacement, and Cartilage restoration.
Shoulder replacement surgery - The prosthesis (artificial parts) replaces the damaged part of the shoulder joint in this surgery. This procedure destroys the source of dysfunction and pain. Different types of shoulder arthroplasty include resurfacing hemiarthroplasty, hemiarthroplasty, stemless total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty and anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty
Wrist replacement surgery - In this arthroplasty, the injured parts of the wrist bones are replaced with artificial parts. The surgery improves the stability of the wrist bone.
Toes and fingers replacement surgery - The injured parts of the toe joints and finger joints are removed and are replaced with artificial components in this replacement surgery.
Ankle replacement surgery - This surgery treats ankle arthritis. It helps in improving joint mobility and stability and reduces joint pain. In this arthroplasty, the injured parts of the ankles are replaced with metal or plastic parts.
Elbow replacement surgery - In elbow arthroplasty, artificial joints replace the elbow bone. These joints are made from implants that are attached to the bones in the arm. These implants are held together by plastic and metal hinge. The surgery helps in restoring the motion of the elbow.
Complications in Joint Replacement Surgery
There are certain risks associated with joint replacement surgery. These risks include:
Stiffness in joints
The chances of these risks can be higher if the patient is having certain health issues like lupus, diabetes, haemophilia, etc. These complications make recovery from the surgery more difficult. Therefore, they should inform the surgeons about their health conditions before their surgery.
The procedure of Joint Replacement Surgery:
The procedure of joint arthroplasty includes the following steps:
The patient is given anaesthesia right before the surgery so that he does not feel any pain.
The surgeon then makes incisions and removes the injured joint.
This damaged part is replaced with the artificial prosthesis.
Then, the incisions are closed using surgical glue, stitches and staples.
After the completion of the surgery, the patient is shifted to the recovery area.
The doctors also conduct some joint replacement processes using less harmful techniques. They will select the most appropriate surgical procedure for the patient.
Tests done before Joint Replacement Surgery
Certain exams or tests are conducted before performing the joint arthroplasty. These tests are:
Physical examination - This includes assessment of soft tissues, finding sources of infections and site of injuries.
Electrocardiography (ECG) - The ECG is done to check the electrical activity and rhythm of the heart.
Urinalysis - This test is done to check certain disorders like kidney disease, diabetes and urinary tract infections. Through this test, doctors also check the concentration, content and appearance of the urine.
Complete blood count (CBC) - This test provides complete information about the patient's blood. It tells about the count of platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. The test helps in detecting disorders like infection, anaemia and leukaemia.
CT scans, X-rays and MRIs - These imaging tests are done to get images of the defective bones so that surgeons can decide the type of procedure to be performed.
How Can CARE Hospitals Help?
At CARE Hospitals, we work according to international treatment protocols. The experienced team of doctors uses minimally invasive methods that can aid the patient in faster recovery and short hospital stays. The trained nursing and support staff takes complete care of the patients from admission till discharge.
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