A kidney biopsy or renal biopsy is a laboratory analysis procedure that involves extracting a small piece of kidney tissue to examine under a microscope. A pathologist specializing in the diagnosis of diseases examines the tissue of a patient's kidney in a lab to look for signs of kidney diseases or infections. A kidney tissue will exhibit inflammation, infection, scarring, or unusual amounts of immunoglobulin deposits. A renal biopsy can help identify the type of kidney disease and the severity of it affecting a patient and also help in guiding to choosing the best treatment plan. This procedure also helps monitor the effectiveness of kidney treatments and any complications following a kidney transplant.
When is a renal biopsy recommended?
There can be a spectrum of signs and symptoms of kidney problems. If you are suffering from one or more of the below-mentioned symptoms, you should consult our team of well-trained and highly experienced nephrologists at CARE hospitals, who will guide you with proper diagnosis, treatment, and aftercare. The signs and symptoms are:
Frequent swelling of the legs, ankles, and feet,
Dryness or itchiness of the skin,
Lethargy and concentration problems,
Reduced sense of taste and appetite,
Pain or stiffness of the joints,
Muscle cramps, weakness or numbness,
Passing blood with urine,
Feeling exhausted during the day but trouble sleeping at night,
Reduced urine output not due to dehydration,
Unexplained problems regarding blood pressure,
Abnormal weight loss.
Why perform renal biopsy?
A renal biopsy is done to evaluate any of the following conditions:
Haematuria- to investigate the cause of blood in the urine
Albuminuria- to determine the cause of more than normal amounts of protein in the urine
Tumor- to check abnormal growth of tumor-like masses in the kidney and see if it is malignant or benign
To find the cause of abnormal levels of waste product buildup in the blood
A kidney biopsy may also provide insight into the severity and rate of progressive kidney failure or how well a transplanted kidney is working.
Our team of experienced, multidisciplinary teams at CARE hospital consistently invest time, effort, and expertise to treat patients with state-of-the-art facilities using minimally invasive methods of diagnosis. There are two ways of performing a renal biopsy-
Percutaneous renal biopsy:
In this procedure, a thin biopsy needle is inserted through the skin to extract kidney tissues. This procedure is assisted by an ultrasound or CT scan to direct the needle to a specific position on the kidney.
In this procedure, a cut is made near the kidney which allows examination of the area from where the tissue sample should be taken.
What is done in a renal biopsy?
The state-of-the-art machines with modern equipment and facilities for renal biopsy operate 24/7 at full capacity across all CARE hospitals. A renal biopsy is performed on an outpatient basis or in the radiology department if an ultrasound or CT scan is needed by following the international standards of protocols and minimally invasive procedures. Our well-trained and highly experienced staff take care of the preliminary procedures which involve taking blood and urine tests to ensure that renal biopsy on the patient will not be risky due to any condition that the person is suffering from. The renal biopsy typically takes about one hour involving either of the following procedures:
In this procedure, the doctor will put a patient on sedatives through an intravenous line. Our multidisciplinary team of doctors will monitor the health throughout the procedure and put local anesthesia on the part where a small incision will be made and tissue will be extracted guided by an ultrasound or a CT scan. Two types of percutaneous renal biopsy are available out of which the doctor will decide upon as required for tissue removal.
Fine needle aspiration- in this method, small kidney tissue is extracted using a small, thin needle attached to a syringe.
Needle core biopsy- this method is used for removing a larger renal tissue sample with the help of a spring-loaded needle.
Depending on a patient's health and physical conditions, a doctor may recommend an open biopsy in case of a history of bleeding or blood clotting. Our multidisciplinary team will take care of the overall health of the patient and put on general anesthesia. Using a laparoscope, which is a thin, lighted tube with a video camera attached to it, the biopsy can be performed by observing the kidney and extracting a tissue sample through a smaller incision.
After the sample is retrieved, our highly experienced staff will take comprehensive care of the patient to ensure maximum comfort,faster recovery, and shorter hospital stay.
Recovery and aftercare
After a renal biopsy, the patient may stay in the hospital for recovery and observation. Our well-trained staff will provide end-to-end care as well as keep track of vital signs, including blood pressure, temperature, heartbeat rate, and breathing rate. A complete blood test and urine test may be done to determine any internal bleeding or other problems post-biopsy. A patient will be administered a pain reliever by our healthcare team depending on the physical condition. After stabilizing the pulse, pressure, and bleeding, the patient may be discharged or kept at the hospital for further observation.
Our specialist doctors may also recommend a diet and ask the patient to avoid any strenuous activities that may put pressure on the kidneys for two weeks and prevent bleeding from the biopsy site. The patient may also be advised to follow other guidelines depending on the health conditions.
Developing any infection afterward is a serious risk and look out for signs and symptoms that may be indicative of an infection. You should contact our doctors at any CARE hospital branch if you experience any of the following problems:
Bright red blood or clots in urine after 24 hours of biopsy,
Have chills or fever,
Growing pain at the site of biopsy,
Redness, swelling, or discharge from the site of biopsy,
Feeling weakness or fainting.
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