Male Infertility - Causes and Treatment Options

Updated on 22 October 2019

Male infertility refers to any health issue that lowers the chances of a man causing pregnancy in his female partner. About 7 percent of the men in the world suffer from infertility issues. Infertility can cause stress and frustration. There are a number of treatment options available for male infertility depending on the causes. Varicocele, infections, and cancer are some male infertility causes.

Male infertility can manifest as –

  • Low libido or a low sex drive - A change in lifestyle, diet, and supplements can be used to increase the libido.
  • Erectile dysfunction or impotence – Erectile dysfunction is a condition in which a man is unable to develop or sustain an erection.
  • Low sperm count – A low sperm count or sperm concentration in the semen may decrease the chances of the female partner’s pregnancy.
  • Sperm motility – While a man’s semen may have a healthy sperm count, sperm motility may be affected. This means that the sperms may not be able to swim or move. This also decreases the chances of pregnancy.
  • Testosterone levels – In some men, low levels of testosterone may also cause infertility.

Male infertility – Understanding the causes

Male infertility can be caused by a number of health issues, lifestyle, and environmental causes. Many of these are treatable at the best urology or male infertility hospital in Hyderabad and other parts of the country. Here are some main causes of male infertility -

  • Varicocele – A condition that leads to the swelling of the veins that drain the testicles can reduce the sperm count. Similarly, blockage of the tubes that carry the sperms due to surgery, trauma, or injury can also cause infertility.
  • Problems with sexual intercourse – A number of problems such as erectile dysfunction, ejaculation issues, and anatomical issues may cause infertility.
  • Other causes – A number of health conditions such as infection, cancers and tumorous growths, hormone imbalances, celiac disease, and certain medications can cause infertility in men.

Certain environmental factors that cause infertility and reduce sperm

  • Exposure to industrial chemicals and heavy metals - exposure to pesticides and herbicides, benzenes, xylene, painting materials, organic solvents, and heavy metals such as lead can cause low sperm counts.
  • Radiation - Exposure to radiation and X-ray can also reduce sperm production.

Some other causes of male infertility include:

  • Drug and alcohol use – The use of anabolic steroids affects the production and quality of sperms. Overuse of alcohol can also lower testosterone levels and cause a decrease in sperm production.
  • Smoking - Smoking regularly also decreases sperm count.
  • Emotional distress – Stress, depression, and emotional issues interfere with hormone production and consequently affect sperm production and cause infertility and erectile dysfunction.
  • Obesity - Obesity can negatively impact a person’s health in many ways including impacting male fertility.

Treatment for male infertility

Apart from dietary and lifestyle changes, there are a number of male infertility treatment options -

  1. Hormone supplements - One of the common methods of urology treatment in India includes hormone therapies such as testosterone shots.
  2. Surgery - In case of blocked sperm ducts, injury etc, surgery is a viable treatment option.
  3. Antibiotics - In case of infections, antibiotic treatments help in increasing the sperm count and quality.
  4. Counselling - In the case of some sexual or mood disorders, medication or counselling can also help.




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