Knee arthroplasty, commonly known as a knee replacement is a type of surgery done to cure knee pain and restore the functions of the knee joints. People suffering from osteoarthritis are advised to undergo this surgery. These people are generally those who have knee pain and are unable to walk, run, climb stairs and find difficulty getting up from a chair.
In this procedure, the surgeons cut the damaged cartilage and bone from the shinbone, thigh bone and knee cap and replace them with a prosthesis (artificial joint). This artificial joint is made up of polymers, high-grade plastics and metal alloys.
Orthopaedic surgeons assess the knee motion, stability and strength to check whether the person is eligible for the knee replacement or not. X-rays help them to determine the extent of knee damage.
The surgical procedures for knee replacement depend on age, activity level, health, weight and knee size and shape of the patient.
Indications For Knee Replacement
Knee replacement surgery is done to treat osteoarthritis. The patient showing the following symptoms is advised to go for knee replacement surgery.
Acute knee pain that limits the daily life activities of the patient.
Experiencing knee pain while resting.
Swelling in the knee and long-lasting knee inflammation.
A bowing out or in the leg.
Types Of Knee Replacement
There are a total of five types of knee replacement surgery. These are:
Total knee replacement - In this knee replacement surgery, the under-surface of the kneecap (patella) is replaced with a smooth plastic dome.
Partial (unicompartmental) knee replacement - This type of knee surgery is done when the inner side of the knee is affected by arthritis. This surgery is performed by making a small cut in the knee.
Patellofemoral arthroplasty (kneecap replacement) - This procedure involves the removal of the under-surface of the kneecap and its groove (the trochlea).
The revision or complex knee replacement - The patient needs this surgery if he is having a second or third joint replacement in the same knee. This complex knee surgery is done to treat the fracture, weakness of the knee ligaments and deformity of the knee.
Cartilage restoration - This type of surgery involves the replacement of the isolated area of injury in the knee with the living cartilage graft.
Risks Of Knee Replacement
Every surgical procedure has some complications. The risks of the knee replacement are discussed below:
Headache, nausea and drowsiness because of anaesthesia
Swelling and pain
Blood clots in lungs and leg vein
Artery and nerve damage
Wearing out of artificial knee
Surgery is done for an infected knee replacement to remove the artificial parts and use antibiotics to kill the bacteria. After this, a new knee is installed.
Wearing out of the artificial knee is one of the highest risks mentioned above. The plastic parts and strongest metals get damaged while performing daily activities. This risk is higher if the patient performs high-impact activities.
Procedure of the Knee Replacement
The procedure acquired by the surgeons of the CARE Hospitals to carry out the knee replacement surgery is discussed below:
Some patients are given general anaesthesia to make them unconscious and some are given spinal anaesthesia which leaves them awake during the surgery.
The knee will be in the bent position so that all the surfaces of the joints are exposed. The surgeons then make a 6 to 10 inches long incision in the knee.
After making the incision, the kneecap is moved aside and the damaged joint surface is removed.
After repairing the joint surfaces, the pieces of the artificial joint are attached.
The incision is then closed. But before closing the incision, the surgeons rotate the knee to check whether the knee is functioning properly or not.
The surgery gets completed in two hours. The patient is then shifted to the recovery room for 2 to 3 hours.
The doctors tell patients to do knee and ankle exercises to prevent blood clots and swelling.
Different Types of Knee Tests
At CARE Hospitals, various knee tests are performed for diagnosing knee problems. Based on these tests, the surgeons decide whether the person requires knee replacement surgery or not. The tests are as follows:
Physical Examination Tests
Our doctors will visually inspect the knee for deformities, swelling, changes in skin colour or redness.
They will touch and feel the knee for coolness or warmth and check whether the patient feels sensations or not.
The doctors will examine the motion of the knee and will listen to the sound made by the knee.
They will ask the patient to move the knee joint and leg to check the mobility.
X-rays of the knee are taken to detect bone spurs, joint alignment and fractures.
CT scans help the doctors to see the pictures of soft tissues like muscles and ligaments.
MRIs are done to get detailed images of the structures from different angles inside the knee joint. These include blood vessels, cartilage and bones.
An arthroscopy test is done to see the inner anatomy of the knee.
Manual Resistance Tests
Varus and valgus tests are done to determine the stability of the leg bones below and above the knee. In these tests, stress is applied to the knee with the immobilisation of the ankle.
Apley's compression test uses a slight force to determine the state of the knee meniscus.
Patellofemoral compression tests are conducted in which pressure is exerted on the thighbone and the kneecap to check whether there are any issues in that particular region.
How can CARE Hospitals Help?
At CARE Hospitals, the multidisciplinary team of doctors uses minimally invasive procedures to treat knee problems. The hospital provides comprehensive diagnostic services for knee replacement surgery. The trained staff provide complete care and assistance to the patients during their recovery period. The state-of-the-art infrastructure of the hospital gives good vibes to the patients to recover fast and improve their quality of life.
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