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Possible Reasons for Pelvic Pain

Updated on 17 June 2022

Pelvic pain is usually felt below the belly button but above the legs. The reasons for pelvic pain could be many. Sometimes it is caused by simple reasons such as a digestive issue, menstruation cycles in women, etc. But if it persists or often recurs, then it is a cause of concern. 

The pain or discomfort felt in the lower abdomen or pelvis is known as pelvic pain. It could be a dull ache or as severe as a sharp jab. The pelvic pain thus felt does not always occur due to any disease. The pain might or might not stay for long. 

It does not indicate any disease as such. It may occur due to simple reasons like constipation, menstruation, full bladder, sexual pain, pregnancy, etc. In the case of women, the need to see a doctor arises when there is a fever, vaginal bleeding, a heavy vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odour along with sudden and severe pain in the pelvis area (might be due to problems in reproductive organs, like vagina, cervix, uterus, ovary, or fallopian tubes). If the pain is severe and does stay for long, it can be diagnosed with the help of a doctor. Only through a medical examination, your doctor can tell the other possible causes of pain. 

Possible reasons for pelvic pain

The possible reasons for pelvic pain are discussed here:

  1. Ovarian Cysts: An ovarian cyst is caused by a follicle not opening to release the egg. Or it may close soon after the release and gets swollen with fluid. This condition causes pelvic pain, swelling, bloating, etc.  Ovarian cysts may go on their own. If there is a sudden or severe pain, it could be due to the bursting or twisting of a cyst. A patient is taken for treatment in such an emergency situation. 

  2. PMS/Menstrual Cramps: The women who are undergoing their monthly cycles, usually feel cramps in their lower belly. The symptoms last for a few days until the lining of the uterus is broken. A few exercises and Yoga help to give relief during this time. OTC medicines, birth control pills, and antidepressants are suggested for such cramps. Alternatively, a heated pad can be used in the area where you feel the pain.

  3. Uterine Fibroids: They are found growing in the wall of the uterus. These are noncancerous and do not result in any serious health issues. They are most common in women who are in their 30s and 40s. The other symptoms that may be affecting the patient include heavy periods, low back pain, painful sex, pressure in the lower abdomen, and difficulty in getting pregnant. 

  4. Kidney Stones: Kidney stones are painful. Kidney stones hurt a lot. The size differs from person to person. The salt and minerals get off the body through urine. And that's where the deposit starts to build up in the form of a stone. They mostly pass out of the system naturally, but if not then they are removed by getting proper treatment. 

  5. Urinary Tract Infection: The bladder feels like it is full. It makes one pee frequently. And also hurts while passing out the urine. The urine comes out in small quantities. When the urinary tract gets infected, you might feel pelvic pain along with all these symptoms. It is very important to stop it else it might spread into the kidneys causing serious damage. UTI may also cause nausea, fever, vomiting, and pain in the lower back. 

  6. Ectopic Pregnancy: When an embryo gets implanted outside the uterus a sharp pelvic pain is felt. It may start growing in the fallopian tubes and the other possible symptoms include nausea, dizziness, and vaginal bleeding. This calls for immediate action and you should consult a doctor instantly if any of these signs are there during your pregnancy. 

  7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Some of the STDs show signs of pelvic pain. The possibility is that the person could be suffering from chlamydia or gonorrhea or both of them. The pain may or may not be felt. There can be bleeding between the periods in case of women along with abnormal vaginal discharge. Peeing becomes painful in such cases for both male and female patients. STDs call for medical treatment.

  8. Scar Tissue: A recent surgery or an infection may lead to pelvic pain. They happen due to adhesions. Depending upon the case surgery or a procedure is advised to treat scar tissue. 

  9. Chronic Pelvic Pain: The pain persists for more than six months and there is no apparent reason for it. It is usually associated with sleep disorders, mental stress, job, and relationship-related issues, etc. Despite undergoing various tests, the cause of pelvic pain is not ruled out. The doctor will advise you on the best suitable cure that fits your case. 

  10. Interstitial Cystitis(IC): Women who are in their 30s and 40s are likely to suffer from IC. It leads to pelvic pain and inflammation of the bladder. It might be painful for such patients to have sex, pain while urinating, and constant pressure above the pubic area making one pee several times. 

Pelvic pain is felt due to a number of reasons and one need not panic when it occurs. However, the frequency and severity of pain surely call for a doctor’s guidance and treatment once the reasons behind the pelvic pain are detected via proper diagnosis. Once the reason becomes clear, an individual can get cured with the help of a medical practitioner. 

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